prediabetes 01

糖尿病前期

糖尿病前期可能会导致其他健康并发症,例如:

human figure 01

中风时,受损或阻塞的血管会切断大脑的血液供应2。糖尿病会使得你的身体难以应对中风情况,因为血糖过高会导致血管中的血块或脂肪堆积,导致血液更难抵达大脑2

血液中的血糖含量过高会损伤控制心脏和血管的神经,这将会提高你罹患心脏病的风险3

长期性高血糖会损害神经并造成神经感觉疼痛和温度的能力变差,这将导致伤口容易被忽视而增加截肢的风险4

糖尿病患者会面临丧失肾脏伸张功能的显著风险,因为糖尿病会影响人体的动脉,而肾脏通过很多动脉过滤血液5

高血糖水平可能会导致眼部血管肿胀并造成液体渗入眼睛后方部位。如果没有及时治疗,这将会影响视力,甚至可能导致失明7

II型糖尿病是一种人体对胰岛素产生阻抗力的代谢障碍,这种情况导致高血糖问题1

尿液中含有蛋白质(也称为尿蛋白)意味着肾脏受损情况可能会发展为肾脏衰竭,这种疾病需要定期进行透析治疗或肾脏移植6

什么因素提高你面临

糖尿病前期的风险?

超重或肥胖

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超重或肥胖

一个人的额外体重越多,尤其是腹部位置,细胞对胰岛素的阻抗力就越强8。 腰围大于40寸的男性和35寸的女性,胰岛素阻抗的风险越13

高血压

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高血压

高血压患者经常会表现出胰岛素阻抗情况,而且罹患糖尿病的风险更高。相比起非糖尿病患者,糖尿病患者患有高血压的几率高出两倍10

妊娠糖尿病病史

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妊娠糖尿病病史

分娩体重4公斤或以上婴儿的女性,患有糖尿病前期的风险可能更高11. 那些在怀孕期间患有妊娠糖尿病的女性,她们的子女面临更高的糖尿病前期风险11

糖尿病家族病史

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糖尿病家族病史

糖尿病前期也有少部分的遗传因素。直系亲属患有II型糖尿病的人,患上糖尿病前期的风险将会明显增加,因为他/她可能会遗传这个疾病的易感性基因9

胆固醇水平异常

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胆固醇水平异常

血液中胆固醇或脂质水平异常表明胰岛素阻抗。这也可能是糖尿病前期的症状12

资料来源:

  1. International Diabetes Federation. 2020. Type 2 Diabetes. https://www.idf.org/aboutdiabetes/type-2-diabetes.html.
  2. Pietrangelo, A. (n.d.). Diabetes and stroke: Is there a connection? Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/health/diabetes/diabetes-and-stroke
  3. The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. 2017. Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/preventing-problems/heart-disease-stroke#:~:text=Over%20time%2C%20high%
    20blood%20glucose,you%20will%20develop%20heart%
    20disease.&text=People%20with%20diabetes%20tend%
    20to,age%20than%20people%20without%20diabetes.
  4. Aaron Vinik, Carolina Casellini and Marie-Laure Nevoret. 2018. Diabetic Neuropathies. Endotext. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279175/.
  5. Diabetic kidney disease. (2017, February 11). National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/preventing-problems/diabetic-kidney-disease
  6. Topham P. 2009. Proteinuric renal disease.Clinical Medicine (London). 9(3): 284-289. doi:10.7861/clinmedicine.9-3-284.
  7. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). 2017. Diabetic Eye Disease. NIDDK, May. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/preventing-problems/diabetic-eye-disease.
  8. Mayo Clinic. 2020. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/prediabetes/symptoms-causes/syc-20355278#:~:text=Your%20risk%20of%
    20prediabetes%20increases,more%20likely%20to%
    20develop%20prediabetes.
  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2020. The Surprising Truth About Prediabetes. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/library/features/truth-about-prediabetes.html.
  10. John R. Petrie, Tomasz J. Guzik, and Rhian M. Touyz. 2018. Diabetes, Hypertension, and Cardiovascular Disease: Clinical Insights and Vascular Mechanisms. The Canadian Journal of Cardiology 34(5): 575–584. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5953551/.
  11. Lynn R. Mack and Paul G. Tomich. 2017. Gestational Diabetes: Diagnosis, Classification, and Clinical Care. Obstetrics and Gynecology: Maintenance of Knowledge 44 (2): 207–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ogc.2017.02.002.
  12. Gylling H, Hallikainen M, Pihlajamäki J, et al. Insulin sensitivity regulates cholesterol metabolism to a greater extent than obesity: Lessons from the METSIM Study. Journal of Lipid Research. 51(8): 2422-2427. doi:10.1194/jlr.P006619.
  13. Insulin resistance & prediabetes. (2018, May 22). National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/what-is-diabetes/prediabetes-insulin-resistance
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